What are the two important aspects of the evolution of landforms?

Erosion and Deposition are the two important aspects of the evolution of landforms. Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to the continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes in climatic conditions and vertical or horizontal movements of landmasses, … Read more

What is the sole driving force behind all the exogenic processes?

Insolation is the sole driving force behind all the exogenic processes. Solar radiation received in the atmosphere or the surface of the earth is known as insolation that we also call sunlight or solar energy. The gravitational force also affects the exogenic processes resulting in angular displacement or slippage due to molecular stresses. The very … Read more

How is the rate of plate movement determined?

Rate of Plate Movement

The rate of plate movement is determined through the strips of the normal and reverse magnetic fields that parallel the mid-oceanic ridges. According to the theory of Plate Tectonics, the earth’s lithosphere is divided into seven major and some minor plates. And these plates have been constantly moving over the globe throughout the history of … Read more

How was the layered structure of the Earth developed?

Layered Structure of the Earth

The layered structure of the Earth was developed through the process of differentiation of the earth-forming materials. The earth was initially a barren, rocky and hot object mostly in a volatile state during its primordial stage. Due to a gradual increase in density, the temperature inside has increased. As s result, the material inside started … Read more

Plate Tectonic Theory UPSC Geography Notes

Plate Tectonic Theory

A tectonic plate is a massive, irregularly-shaped slab of solid rock usually composed of both continental and oceanic lithosphere. Every continent is a part of a plate, and many experts have proposed that these continental plates keep moving resulting in the movement of the continents. This is what frames the theory of plate tectonics. Plate … Read more

IAS Manuj Jindal UPSC Booklist, Marksheet, Optional and Notes

Manuj Jindal Books for UPSC Exam

Manuj Jindal is an IAS officer who secured AIR 53 in the UPSC Civil Services Examination 2016. And if you are also preparing for the IAS exam, you might have watched some of his videos on YouTube where he shares great preparation strategies for future aspirants. As a professional in the IAS, he served the … Read more